« The universal organizations » : différence entre les versions

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  | cours = [[Introduction au droit]]
  | cours = [[Introduction to law]]
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*[[Définition du droit]]
*[[The definition of law]]
*[[L’État]]
*[[The State]]
*[[Les différentes branches du droit]]
*[[The different branches of law]]
*[[Les sources du droit]]
*[[The sources of law]]
*[[Les grandes traditions formatrices du droit]]
*[[The great formative traditions of law]]
*[[Les éléments de la relation juridique]]
*[[The elements of the legal relationship]]
*[[L’application du droit]]
*[[The application of law]]
*[[La mise en œuvre d’une loi]]
*[[The implementation of a law]]
*[[L’évolution de la Suisse des origines au XXème siècle]]
*[[The evolution of Switzerland from its origins to the 20th century]]
*[[Le cadre juridique interne de la Suisse]]
*[[Switzerland's domestic legal framework]]
*[[La structure d’État, le régime politique et la neutralité  de la Suisse]]
*[[Switzerland's state structure, political system and neutrality]]
*[[L’évolution des relations internationales de la fin du XIXe au milieu du XXe siècle]]
*[[The evolution of international relations from the end of the 19th century to the middle of the 20th century]]
*[[Les organisations universelles]]
*[[The universal organizations]]
*[[Les organisations européennes et leurs relations avec la Suisse]]
*[[European organisations and their relations with Switzerland]]
*[[Les catégories et les générations de droits fondamentaux]]
*[[Categories and generations of fundamental rights]]
*[[Les origines des droits fondamentaux]]
*[[The origins of fundamental rights]]
*[[Les déclarations des droits de la fin du XVIIIe siècle]]
*[[Declarations of rights at the end of the 18th century]]
*[[Vers l’édification d’une conception universelle des droits fondamentaux au XXe siècle]]
*[[Towards the construction of a universal conception of fundamental rights in the 20th century]]
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= L’Organisation des Nations Unies =
= The United Nations =
[[File:Emblem of the United Nations.png|thumb|200px|Emblem of the United Nations.]]
[[File:Emblem of the United Nations.png|thumb|200px|Emblem of the United Nations.]]It was developed in the United States just before the end of the war. The Charter of the United Nations was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945 by the free nations at war with the Axis powers.


Elle est élaborée aux États-Unis juste avant la fin de la guerre. La Charte des Nations Unies est signée à San Francisco le 26 juin 1945 par les nations libres en guerre contre les puissances de l’Axe.  
Today, it has more than 196 members, including Switzerland.


Aujourd’hui, elle regroupe plus de 196 membres, dont la Suisse.  
Since the end of the war, Switzerland has had an observer seat. It was only in 2002, after the people and the cantons had accepted its accession, that it became a permanent member. Membership was first refused in 1986 in the midst of a period of confrontation between the Soviet and Western blocs.


Depuis la fin de la guerre, la Suisse avait un siège d’observateur. Ce n’est qu’en 2002, après que le peuple et les cantons aient accepté son adhésion, qu’elle devient membre permanente. L’adhésion fut d’abord refusée en 1986 en pleine période de confrontation entre les blocs soviétique et occidental.  
The Charter of the United Nations has an objective of peacekeeping and international cooperation. Its headquarters are in New York. However, the European headquarters is maintained in Geneva.


La Charte des Nations Unies a un objectif de maintien de la paix et de coopération internationale. Son siège est à New York. Toutefois, le siège européen est maintenu à Genève.
The main organs:


Les organes principaux :
*'''General Assembly''': meets in session once a year where each member is represented and represents one vote. On the other hand, it gives rise to special bodies with a high degree of autonomy, such as the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, established in 1950, UNESCO, and the ILO. Switzerland was a member of some of these bodies even before it became a permanent member of the UN.
*'''Assemblée Générale''' : se réunit en session une fois par an où chaque membre est représenté et représente une voix. D’autre part il en découle des organes spéciaux ayant une large autonomie, comme le Haut Commissariat des Nations Unies pour les réfugiés institué en 1950, l’UNESCO, le BIT ou encore l’OIT. La Suisse faisait partie de certains de ces organes avant même de devenir membre permanent de l’ONU.  
*'''Security Council''': has 15 members, including 5 permanent members who are the victorious powers of the Second World War (United States, France, United Kingdom, China, Russia). The other members are elected for two years and the choice of these countries must take into account the geographical distribution. The permanent members have a veto vote. However, the right of veto is not officially registered, but is subject to an interpretation that stipulates that if a permanent member votes against a decision, he can therefore defeat the vote. The abstention of a permanent Member State does not paralyse the system. Since the Soviet Union disappeared, the Security Council has mostly used the consensus technique, the result of a long negotiation process.
*'''Conseil de Sécurité''' : compte 15 membres, dont 5 permanents qui sont les puissances victorieuses de la Deuxième guerre mondiale (États-Unis, France, Royaume-Uni, Chine, Russie). Les autres membres sont élus pour deux ans et le choix de ces pays doit tenir compte de la répartition géographique. Les membres permanents disposent d’un vote de véto. Cependant, le droit de véto n’est pas officiellement inscrit, mais relève d’une interprétation qui stipule que si un membre permanent vote contre une décision il peut de ce fait, faire échouer la votation. L’abstention d’un État membre permanent n’entraine pas la paralysie du système. Depuis que l’Union soviétique a disparu, le Conseil de Sécurité recourt la plupart du temps à la technique du consensus, fruit d’un long processus de négociation.  
*'''General Secretariat''': represented by Ban Ki Moon who is elected by a vote at the General Assembly and proposed by the Security Council. The functions are mainly political. The secretary is supported by an administrative team.
*'''Secrétariat Général''' : représenté par la personne de Ban Ki Moon qui est élu par un vote lors de l’assemblée générale et proposé par le conseil de sécurité. Les fonctions sont principalement politiques. Le secrétaire est épaulé par une équipe administrative.
*'''International Court of Justice''': is composed of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. It is the judicial body of the United Nations. Its objective is to decide according to the rules of international law. Its jurisdiction extends to all cases referred to it by States. Only States can bring an action before the international court of justice: an individual cannot act. No State may, without its consent, be forced to submit a dispute it has with another State to the mediation of the Court. The Court has jurisdiction:
*'''Cour Internationale de Justice''' : est composé de 15 juges élus par l’Assemblée générale et le Conseil de Sécurité. Elle est l’organe judiciaire des Nations-Unies. Son objectif est de statuer selon des règles du droit international. Sa compétence s’étend à toutes les affaires que lui soumettent les États. Seuls les États peuvent saisir la cour internationale de justice : un individu ne peut pas agir. Aucun État ne peut, sans son consentement, être forcé de soumettre un différend qu’il a avec un autre État à la médiation de la Cour. La Cour est compétente :
**If States recognize its jurisdiction
**Si les États reconnaissent sa compétence
**Either because the disputes concern the interpretation or application of a treaty.
**Soit parce que les litiges concernent l’interprétation ou l’application d’un traité.  
**Either because two States in conflict decide to submit the dispute to the court.
**Soit parce que deux États en conflit décident de soumettre le différend à la cour.  


L’article 93 prévoit que des États non membres des Nations Unies peuvent adhérer à la [[Le règlement pacifique des différends internationaux|Cour Internationale de Justice]]. C’est le cas de la Suisse en 1948.
Article 93 provides that States that are not members of the United Nations may join the International Court of Justice. This was the case in Switzerland in 1948.


= Les institutions spécialisées =
= The specialized agencies =
Pour promouvoir la paix, il existe de nombreuses organisations établies dans le sillage de l’ONU : Organisation de la Propriété Intellectuelle (1967), l’UNESCO (1945), l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, l’Organisation Internationale du Travail (1919). La Suisse en a fait partie avant même de siéger à l’Assemblée Générale de l’ONU à New York.
To promote peace, there are many organizations established in the wake of the United Nations: the Intellectual Property Organization (1967), UNESCO (1945), the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization (1919). Switzerland was a member of it even before it sat on the UN General Assembly in New York.


= Annexes =
= Annexes =
*Université de Genève. “International Organizations Management.” Coursera, https://www.coursera.org/learn/international-organizations-management.


= Références =
= References =
<references />
<references />



Version actuelle datée du 18 janvier 2020 à 17:58


The United Nations[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

Emblem of the United Nations.

It was developed in the United States just before the end of the war. The Charter of the United Nations was signed in San Francisco on June 26, 1945 by the free nations at war with the Axis powers.

Today, it has more than 196 members, including Switzerland.

Since the end of the war, Switzerland has had an observer seat. It was only in 2002, after the people and the cantons had accepted its accession, that it became a permanent member. Membership was first refused in 1986 in the midst of a period of confrontation between the Soviet and Western blocs.

The Charter of the United Nations has an objective of peacekeeping and international cooperation. Its headquarters are in New York. However, the European headquarters is maintained in Geneva.

The main organs:

  • General Assembly: meets in session once a year where each member is represented and represents one vote. On the other hand, it gives rise to special bodies with a high degree of autonomy, such as the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, established in 1950, UNESCO, and the ILO. Switzerland was a member of some of these bodies even before it became a permanent member of the UN.
  • Security Council: has 15 members, including 5 permanent members who are the victorious powers of the Second World War (United States, France, United Kingdom, China, Russia). The other members are elected for two years and the choice of these countries must take into account the geographical distribution. The permanent members have a veto vote. However, the right of veto is not officially registered, but is subject to an interpretation that stipulates that if a permanent member votes against a decision, he can therefore defeat the vote. The abstention of a permanent Member State does not paralyse the system. Since the Soviet Union disappeared, the Security Council has mostly used the consensus technique, the result of a long negotiation process.
  • General Secretariat: represented by Ban Ki Moon who is elected by a vote at the General Assembly and proposed by the Security Council. The functions are mainly political. The secretary is supported by an administrative team.
  • International Court of Justice: is composed of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. It is the judicial body of the United Nations. Its objective is to decide according to the rules of international law. Its jurisdiction extends to all cases referred to it by States. Only States can bring an action before the international court of justice: an individual cannot act. No State may, without its consent, be forced to submit a dispute it has with another State to the mediation of the Court. The Court has jurisdiction:
    • If States recognize its jurisdiction
    • Either because the disputes concern the interpretation or application of a treaty.
    • Either because two States in conflict decide to submit the dispute to the court.

Article 93 provides that States that are not members of the United Nations may join the International Court of Justice. This was the case in Switzerland in 1948.

The specialized agencies[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

To promote peace, there are many organizations established in the wake of the United Nations: the Intellectual Property Organization (1967), UNESCO (1945), the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization (1919). Switzerland was a member of it even before it sat on the UN General Assembly in New York.

Annexes[modifier | modifier le wikicode]

References[modifier | modifier le wikicode]